The Impact of Compaction Force on Graft Consolidation in a Guided Bone Regeneration Model
Viteri-Agustín I, Brizuela-Velasco A, Lou-Bonafonte JM, Jiménez-Garrudo A, Chávarri-Prado D, Pérez-Pevida E, Benito-Garzón L, Gruber R. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2020 Sep/Oct;35(5):917-923.

This study was carried out by a team of clinicians and researchers from University of Zaragoza, University of Oviedo, University of Salamanca (Spain), led by internationally renowned Prof. Dr. Reinhard Gruber, Professor for Oral Biology at the University Clinic of Dentistry, Medical University of Vienna (Austria). His 100+ scientific articles focus, among other topics, on: Cell biology related to periodontal and periimplant changes in various clinical settings; correlations of age, systemic diseases and medications in dentistry. Prof. Dr. Reinhard Gruber is board member of the Osteology Foundation and the German Society of Osteology.

The goal of the study was to evaluate different compression forces on the consolidation of cerabone® using an in vivo calvarial model.


Titanium cylinders, fixed on the calvarium of New Zealand rabbits, were filled with cerabone® granules applying a compression force of 0.7 kg/cm2 or 1.6 kg/cm2. A handheld device with a spring was used to control the compression force. Sites were covered with Jason® membrane and after six weeks, histomorphometry of the area adjacent to the calvaria bone and to the collagen membrane respectively, was performed. Bone- per tissue volume (BV/TV), bone-to-biomaterial contact (BBC) and number/area of blood vessels were analyzed.

Major results:

  • Uneventful healing at all treated sites
  • Completely osseointegrated cerabone® only after six week
  • ~30% newly formed bone in 4 mm vertical dimension only after six weeks
    (BV/TV next to the calvaria was 29.0% ± 8.8% and 27.6% ± 8.2% at low and high compression force, respectively; BV/TV next to the membrane was 4.9% ± 5.1% and 5.7% ± 4.7%, respectively)
  •  60 – 70% bone-to-biomaterial contact after six weeks
    (BBC next to the calvaria was 58.2% ± 25.0% and 69.3% ± 22.9%, respectively (P > .05); BBC next to the membrane was 18.3% ± 20.8% and 20.1% ± 15.9%, respectively (P > .05))
  • Excellent vascularization of the regenerated site (Blood vessel parameters were not significantly affected by the use of different applied forces)
  • Excellent barrier effect of the Jason® membrane
  • No need for bone graft condensation

Clinical significance of the study:

cerabone® ensures an efficient bone regeneration after only 6 weeks even in vertical, challenging defects (4mm height, 6.9mm wide).


The authors concluded that both compression forces applied resulted in a similar consolidation of cerabone® as demonstrated by comparable rates of new bone formation and vascularization.

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